On April 13, 1863, the newly-appointed commander of the District of Ohio, Gen. Ambrose Burnside, issued his famous General Order 38 threatening arrest of Confederate sympathizers: “The habit of declaring sympathy for the enemy will not be allowed in this department. Persons committing such offenses will be at once arrested with a view of being tried ... or sent beyond our lines into the lines of their friends. It must be understood that treason, expressed or implied, will not be tolerated in this department.”
The general also noted: “Anyone found guilty of committing acts for the benefit of the enemies of our country will be subject to execution.”
Some people have said Burnside’s order was directed at Clement Vallandigham, probably the best known and most vocal of the “Peace Democrats,” but other historians have pointed out that similar orders were issued in other states.
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